Csf is present in both the intracranial and spinal compartments. There is about 125ml of csf at any one time, and about 500 ml is generated every day. Analysis of bacterial isolates from cerebrospinal fluid. Cerebrospinal fluid is the liquid around your brain and spinal cord. It is produced by specialised ependymal cells in the choroid plexuses of the ventricles of the brain, and absorbed in the arachnoid granulations. Cerebrospinal fluid csf is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord. Csf is a clear fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord. Cerebrospinal fluid csf analysis is a set of laboratory tests that examine a sample of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Elevated 50 cellsl, primarily lymphocytes, can be pmn early on.
Automated flow cytometric analysis of cerebrospinal fluid aefa. Cerebrospinal fluid csf interpretation geeky medics. Comparisonofcell counts andconcentration ofglucoseandprotein in csfobtainedfrompatients withbacterial contaminants or. This is performed if the doctor suspects certain conditions such as meningitis or subarachnoid haemorrhage. White blood cell wbc counts in cerebrospinal fluid csf are important for the diagnosis of many neurological. A csf analysis is a group of tests that look at your cerebrospinal fluid to help diagnose diseases and conditions that affect the brain and spinal cord. This cutoff was based on a commonly cited report that indicated that the presence of up to 200 cells mm 3 did not affect csf tp concentration or tncc in patients with neurologic disease. There is progressive reduction in both neutrophils and lymphocytes. Cerebrospinal fluid chimerism analysis in patients with. Cerebrospinal fluid results csf interpretation other. An overview of cerebrospinal fluid interpretation csf interpretation. The csf cushions the brain and serves also as a sink that receives products generated by brain catabolism and synaptic function. Should be performed on a stained smear and not from the cells in neubauer counting chamber.
Delays in the labbratory examination of cerebrospinal fluid are commonly encounteredin clinical. Csf collection and analysis cerebellomedullary csf samples were collected with hypodermal 1. B and t lymphocytes in cerebrospinal fluid and blood in multiple sclerosis, optic neuritis and mumps meningitis. Body fluids in the hematology laboratory oncohema key. When an individual suffers a head injury, the fluid acts as a. Acute neurological condition, cerebrospinal fluid analysis. You can asses this ppt for your routine laboratory work. Normal csf has no or very few cells present and appears clear. Commonly performed tests on csf include protein and glucose levels, cell counts and differential, microscopic examination, and culture. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis is nonspecific but, again, useful in implying an inflammatory process within the cns and ruling out infection and malignant diseases that may manifest similarly.
Ceribrospinal fluid analysis is a very important investigations in all laboratories. It is continuously being secreted by the choroid plexus at a constant rate inside the ventricles of the brain and circulates in the subarachnoid space of the brain and spinal cord through csf pathways. Csf is added to conical chamber, and as specimen centrifuged, cells present in fluid are forced into a monolayer within a 6mm diameter circle. This fluid is an ultrafiltrate of plasma plasma is the liquid portion of blood. However,as few as 200 white blood cells wbcs per mm3 or 400 red blood cells rbcs per mm 3 will cause csf to appear turbid. The fluid within the spine will indicate the presence of viruses, bacteria, and blood. Cerebrospinal fluid csf analysis is a classic tool for diag. Normally, cells are very scant to absent when collected by lplumbar puncture. The choroid plexus comprises of a monolayer of tightly connected epithelial cells that form an important physical, enzymatic, and immunologic barrier, called the bloodcerebrospinal fluid csf. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in clinical diagnosis. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in infectious diseases of the. These cells expressed c3 mrna as measured by quantitative pcr at higher levels than did bronchial and mammary epithelial cells or leukocytes figure 3d. The remaining csf is derived from the interstitial fluid of the brain which is produced by the bbb and the ependymal cells lining the ventricles 18,2425 26.
Few reports describe the clinical utility of csf chimerism analysis in patients after allohct. Under normal conditions, the composition of csf remains constant. Laboratory tests that may be performed on csf include, but are not limited to, macroscopic evaluation, microscopic evaluation of cell count and type, chemical analysis, microbiology cultures, and immunologic and molecular analyses. This smi describes the examination of cerebrospinal fluid csf for the. If a doctor thinks you have an illness that affects your nervous system, she might take a sample for testing. Total cell count tcc was determined with a hemocytometer, by counting all cells within 10 large squares of the grid. Clinical utility of biochemical analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. The real barrier to csf analysis was its accessibility, and formal examination of. Low volume and few cells have hampered the use of flow cytometry for studying cerebrospinal fluid csf in routine clinical practice, although information about. Csf analysis definition of csf analysis by medical. The next historical reference to csf comes from antonio valsalva, who in 1672 drained clear fluid from the lumbar sac of a dog and likened it to synovial fluid. Cerebrospinal fluid csf is a clear liquid that is produced mostly in the ventricles of.
Cerebrospinal fluid is a clear fluid which is formed as a ultra filtrate of plasma. It contains glucose, electrolytes, amino acids, and other small molecules found in plasma, but has very little protein and few cells. Cerebrospinal fluid csf analysis and interpretation in. Formed primarily in the ventricles of the brain, the cerebrospinal fluid supports the brain and provides lubrication between surrounding bones and the brain and spinal cord. Csf acts as a cushion or buffer, providing basic mechanical and. Identifying the types of cells present in csf is valuable diagnostic aid. If the fluid is bloodtinged to slightly bloody, the rbcs can be counted using undiluted. The mean distribution of these nucleated cells is neutrophils 7%, lymphocytes 24%, monocytes 48%, macrophages 10%, and synovial lining cells. C3 expression in csf cancer cells was confirmed by immunofluorescence if figures 3e and 3f. A serum glucose analysis should be done simultaneously. Cerebrospinal fluid csf is collected by performing a lumbar puncture on your patient. Ventricular fluid specimens, however, are usually much more cellular.
Csf analysis uf health, university of florida health. Csf produced by ventricular capillary blood vessels choroid plexuses csf absorbed by arachnoid villi csf is a selective ultrafiltrate. A lumbar puncture, also called a spinal tap, is the. Is a set of laboratory tests that examine a sample of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Studies that have demonstrated some usefulness of csf analysis in predicting. You will not be expected to know this skill for examinations, however you may be asked to interpret some csf results. Cerebrospinal fluid in cerebral hemorrhage and infarction. Evidence clearly indicates that visual inspection is not a reliable method. Dilutions should be based on the turbidity of the fluid or on the number of cells seen on the hemacytometer when using an undiluted sample. Cases with hemorrhagic infarction coul nodt be separated from those with ischemic infarction on the basis of csf analysis in. Pdf flow cytometric characterization of cerebrospinal fluid cells. Cerebrospinal fluid csf analysis is a group of laboratory tests that measure chemicals in the cerebrospinal fluid. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis a analysis that is important in diagnosing diseases of the central nervous system. If the number of cells present are very few for example, 5 or less, the laboratory may or may not perform a cell differential see.
Sah will have an even distribution in all tubes clot formation indicates a traumatic tap plasma, sah does not have enough fibrinogen erythrophagocytosis, hemosiderin granules and xanthrochromia are indicative of sah since these processes take some time to occur and are not present in a recent. A csf analysis is a group of tests that evaluate substances in csf in order to diagnose conditions affecting the brain and spinal cord central nervous system. Cerebrospinal fluid csf analysis very frequently makes the difference to the diagnosis, not only in relation to infections but also in other diseases of the nervous system such as inflammatory, demyelinating, neoplastic and degenerative diseases. Infections such as encephalitis will be indicated by an. Csf functions as lymphatic system by providing medium for removing. Many times, alterations in normal csf parameters with variable and. A wbc count of approximately 200mm 3 or an rbc count of approximately 400mm 3 causes a fluid to be slightly hazy. Nearly every section of the laboratory can be involved in the evaluation of cerebrospinal. Cerebrospinal fluid csf analysis is a way of looking for conditions that affect your brain and spine. Examination is largely unremarkable, but he does appear to have some mild neck. The csf typically shows a persistently raised red cell count due to blood present in the csf from the initial bleed. Revised national guidelines for analysis of cerebrospinal. Csf is formed mainly in the ventricles from blood filtered through the choroid plexus. Red blood cells in csf caused by a traumatic tap or a subarachnoid hemorrhage artificially increase the white blood cell count and protein level.
However, in various neurological disease especially in acute conditions, the composition, quantity and its pressure can be altered. The reference range for cerebrospinal fluid analysis is as follows. The csf pressure, protein values and leukocyte counts were less usefu iln differentiating intracerebral hemorrhage from cerebral infarction. Its a series of lab tests performed on a sample of csf. Comparison of cerebellomedullary and lumbar cerebrospinal. If the csf sample appears clear, a small drop of undiluted csf is examined under a microscope and cells are counted manually. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis an overview sciencedirect. Cerebrospinal fluid csf analysis flashcards quizlet. Complement component 3 adapts the cerebrospinal fluid for. Cerebrospinal fluid csf is a clear fluid circulating in the intracranial and spinal compartments.
Flow cytometric analysis of cerebrospinal fluid samples and its. Outer most membrane dura mater center membrane arachnoid mater spiderweb like inner membrane pia mater csf between pia and arachnoid maters subarachnoid space. Delays in laboratory analysis of csf can alter the cell count as a result of lysis in the csf. Infectious diseases of the brain and spinal cord, including meningitis and.
Cerebrospinal fluid csf is a clear, watery liquid that flows around the brain and spinal cord, surrounding and protecting them. Association of cerebrospinal fluid analysis findings with. Using the wrong additive synovial could possibly introduce artifacts and therefore interfere with the identification of cellular elements present on a slide. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis is a test used to diagnose conditions that affect the central nervous system. Cerebrospinal fluid csf analysis cerebrospinal fluid csf analysis. The tests may look for proteins, sugar glucose, and other substances. Cerebrospinal fluid csf, clear, colourless liquid that fills and surrounds the brain and the spinal cord and provides a mechanical barrier against shock. The cerebrospinal fluid csf analysis is an invaluable diagnostic aid in various nervous system diseases. Within several hours, the red blood cells in the cerebrospinal fluid are destroyed, releasing their oxygencarrying molecule heme, which is metabolized by enzymes to bilirubin, a yellow pigment. Csf cell count in this test, a lab technician counts the number of red blood cells rbcs and white blood cells wbcs present in a drop of your fluid sample. We now propose revised guidelines for the specimen requirements, transport, handling and analysis of csf and interpretation in suspected sah with a negative.1080 1068 580 464 985 1383 799 709 1390 312 201 1597 1330 1026 1643 603 521 67 1350 1253 291 64 425 1156 1340 1307 66 1111 460 41 131 1156 48 1278 302